Installing Debian on a USB stick

1.  Creating a USB version of a live CD — the boring option
With the current 'hybrid' Debian iso's it couldn't be easier.


a. Download the iso
Using jigdo is a good option. Downloading a business-card/netinstall iso is another, if you'll have a working internet connection available.

b. Plug in and mount your USB device and  find out the device name of your USB drive.
If it's mounted you can use
#df -h

rootfs                                                   93G   36G   54G  40% /
udev                                                    3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs                                                   801M  980K  800M   1% /run
/dev/disk/by-uuid/..-10a350f85687   93G   36G   54G  40% /
tmpfs                                                   5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs                                                   1.6G   52K  1.6G   1% /tmp
tmpfs                                                   1.6G  816K  1.6G   1% /run/shm
/dev/sda6                                               745G  183G  525G  26% /home
/dev/sdc1                                               2.0G  434M  1.5G  23% /media/XP-KOMKU



../dev/sdc1 on /media/XP-KOMKU type vfat (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,uid=1000,gid=1000,fmask=0022,dmask=0077,codepage=cp437,iocharset=utf8,shortname=mixed,showexec,utf8,flush,errors=remount-ro,uhelper=udisks)

to list mounted devices. In my case it's an old 2 G usb stick I used to create a Windows XP installation USB device on.

If you prefer a gui tool, start palimpsest (called Disk Utility in gnome)
It will be something akin to sdb1 or sdc1 etc. That means the device name is /dev/sdb or /dev/sdc, respectively. In our case, it's sdc.


c. Unmount but don't detach the device
You don't want anything else writing to it.

# umount /dev/sdc1
# df -h
Filesystem                                              Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
rootfs                                                   93G   36G   54G  40% /
udev                                                    3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
tmpfs                                                   801M  976K  800M   1% /run
/dev/disk/by-uuid/..-10a350f85687   93G   36G   54G  40% /
tmpfs                                                   5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs                                                   1.6G   60K  1.6G   1% /tmp
tmpfs                                                   1.6G  820K  1.6G   1% /run/shm
/dev/sda6                                               745G  183G  525G  26% /home

d. Become root and use cat to write the iso to the USB device

sudo su

And write (assuming that the device name is sdc and you are using the businesscard iso)

cat debian-6.0.3-amd64-businesscard.iso > /dev/sdc


e. boot from your USB drive and go through the same steps as for a CD.  
Plug it in, then start your computer. Hit F12 (or F10 or del or F2) during the bios start-up to select boot medium. Choose to boot from usb. Older BIOSes can't boot from USB.


Solid State Drive (SSD): optimize it for Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Debian


BIOS and UEFI: set it to AHCI


Reserve 10 percent for overprovisioning

General opinion used to be, that it's wise to reserve as much as 20 to 25 percent of the storage capacity of an SSD for such unallocated space. 


After the installation: noatime

7. With "noatime" in /etc/fstab, you disable the write action "access time stamp", that the operating system puts on a file whenever it's being read by the operating system. For an SSD "noatime" is much better.

You can do that as follows:

a. First make sure that you have installed the applications gksu and leafpad:

Click on the grey Ubuntu logo (Dash home). Query: terminal
Click on Terminal.

Type (or copy/paste): 
sudo apt-get install gksu leafpad

Press Enter and submit your password. Please note that the password will remain invisible, not even asterisks will show, which is normal.

b. Then type in the terminal (use copy/paste):
gksudo leafpad /etc/fstab

Press Enter.

c. Now add "noatime" to the line for your root partition and your other Linux partitions. Not to the line for the swap partition!

An adapted line may look like this:
UUID=f0ae2c59-83d2-42e7-81c4-2e870b6b255d   /   ext4 noatime,errors=remount-ro   0   1

Note: this is one line, not two! It might appear to be two lines (dependent on your screen size), because of the length of the line.



Radeon HD Configuration



xorg.conf Basics

Open your xorg.conf for editing in any text editor (gedit is used in this example):

gksu gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Now change/add the Driver line in the Device section.

Section "Device"
        ...     #Other directives here
        Driver   "radeon"
        Option   "DRI" "on"   #this is the default in recent radeonhd versions
        Option   "AccelMethod" "EXA" #this is the default in recent radeonhd versions

HDMI Audio

By default, HDMI audio is disabled. In the Device section of your xorg.conf, you'll need to add the following lines:

        Option "Audio" "true"
        Option "HDMI" "all"


Power Management

The GPU should automatically drop to low-power mode when the video signal is disabled (i.e. when the monitor turns itself off using DPMS after a specified amount of idle time). You can check/change your DPMS settings on-the-fly with the xset command and you can statically set the appropriate options in xorg.conf. Please read the appropriate man pages (xset and xorg.conf) for more information on that topic. At this time, full dynamic control of clocks and voltages (i.e. ATI PowerPlay) is not implemented in the open-source drivers. However, one can force the GPU to low-power mode at all times by adding the following line in the Device section of xorg.conf:

        Option "ForceLowPowerMode" "true"



 ###—— ——-

Option "AccelDFS"   "1"

Option "AGPMode" "1"
Option "GARTSize" "64"
Option "EnablePageFlip" "1"
Option "ColorTiling" "1"
Option "ForceLowPowerMode" "true"
Option "Audio" "true"
Option "HDMI" "all"
Option   "DRI" "on"   #this is the default in recent radeonhd versions
Option "AccelMethod" "EXA" #this is the default in recent radeonhd versions
Identifier   "Card0"
Driver       "radeon"
BusID       "PCI:1:0:0"



Radeon Driver Debian | Ubuntu

 Identifying Your Graphics Chip

First, check your graphic card name and chipset:


sudo update-pciids #optional command, requires internet
lspci -nn | grep VGA

It should report something like this for your graphics card:

01:00.0 VGA compatible controller: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI] RV710 [Radeon HD 4550]

Testing The Driver

To look for boot messages/errors, check


dmesg | egrep 'drm|radeon'

To see your OpenGL information, you can run the commands below. Make sure your OpenGL renderer string does not say "software rasterizer" or "llvmpipe" because that would mean you have no 3D hardware acceleration:


sudo apt-get install mesa-utils
LIBGL_DEBUG=verbose glxinfo
Removing the proprietary fglrx driver

 Typically, the following manual commands will properly uninstall -fglrx:


   sudo apt-get remove –purge xorg-driver-fglrx fglrx*



Recommended configuration for

  sudo apt-get install --reinstall libgl1-mesa-glx libgl1-mesa-dri xserver-xorg-core
  sudo dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg


Boot into recovery mode and select Root Shell. Then run:

X -configure


cp /root/ /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Reboot and you can edit the new Xorg.conf.


Next Step




sudo apt-get install nagios3 nagios-nrpe-plugin

sudo htpasswd /etc/nagios3/htpasswd.users steve





Para instalar o ocsinventory-server basta seguir estas instruções.
Verifique se que o repositório universe está habilitado.
Inspecione /etc/apt/sources.list usando seu editor favorito com sudo que vai garantir que você tenha as permissões corretas.
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
deb precise main universe
Após quaisquer alterações, você deve executar este comando para atualizar seu sistema.
sudo apt-get update
Agora você pode instalar o pacote como este.
Instalar ocsinventory-server
sudo apt-get install ocsinventory-server
Irá instalar o ocsinventory-server e outros pacotes do qual depende.
Abrir navegador e aceder: http://<seuservidor>/ocsreports/install.php (seuservidor, refere-se ao IP).
#No caso de não funcionar de executar o comando abaixo:
sudo ln -s /etc/ocsinventory/ocsreports.conf /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/ocsreports.conf
—- Sob análise —-
sudo ln -s /etc/ocsinventory/ocsinventory.conf /etc/apache2/conf.d/ocsinventory.conf
##sudo ln -s /etc/ocsinventory/ocsreports.conf /etc/apache2/conf-available/ocsreports.conf
Alterar as linhas
post_max_size= 8M
upload_max_filesize= 2M
post_max_size= 200M
upload_max_filesize= 200M
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo apt-get install ocsinventory-agent