Instalando e Configurando o DNS Server

Neste tutorial iremos instalar o DNS e configura-lo para a instalação do Active Directory.
Tenha certeza que as configurações de endereçamento IP esteja correta. (veja Configurações Iniciais IP/Nome)

  • Instalando o DNS
  • Criando uma zona primaria e reversa
  • Configurando o DNS (Name Servers)
  • Criando um Registro tipo HOST(A)
  • Testando o Servidor DNS

 


Instalando o DNS

1. Abra o Server Manager
Start\Administrative Tools\Server Manager

2. Em Roles Summary clique em Add Roles e na janela que se abre clique OK.

Se desejar marque a opção "Skip this page by default" .

3. Na lista de Server Roles, selecione DNS Server e clique Next.

4. Na janela seguinte, temos uma introdução do que é o DNS e informações adicionais, Clique Next.

5.Nesta janela é a confirmação da instalação do serviço e mensagens sobre a possivel necessidade de reiniciar o computador, Clique Next

6.Ao termino da Instalação é mostrado o resultado informando que a instalação foi bem sucedida. Clique em Close.

 

 

Criando uma zona primaria

 

Uma vez instalado o DNS precisa ser configurado para receber as informações do dominio.
Agora iremos criar um zona de pesquisa direta, ou seja o serviço irá fazer a resolução de nomes para endereço IP.
Vamos criar uma zona chamada mcsesolution.local que é o mesmo nome do nosso futuro dominio.
Lembre-se não adianta eu instalar o dns e criar uma zona chamada qualquercoisa.com.br e depois querer integrar em meu dominio chamado outracoisa.com.br.

1.Clique em Star\Administrative Tools\DNS ou simplesmente clique "Start" e digite DNS.

2. Clique com o lado direito sobre Forward Lookup Zone e selecione no menu suspenso "New Zone"
3. Na janela New Zone clique Next.

4. Na janela Zone Type (tipo de zona) iremos criar uma zona primaria.
Existem 4 tipos de zona.
Zona Primaria (o nome já diz tudo, deve ser a primeira zona a ser criada e quando ainda não existe dominio, ela não pode ser integrada e armazena seus dados em um arquivo de texto .DNS)
Zona Secundaria (Só pode existir se haver uma primaria. Esta será uma copia somente leitura da zona primaria)
Zona tipo Stub (Um tipo de zona que armazena apenas registros NS (Name Server), SOA (start of authority) e alguns A (glue host) – esta zona não é autoritativa.
Zona Integrada ao Active Directory (Quando existe um controlador de dominio, podemos integrar a zona, assim os dados serão armazenados no proprio Active Directory e replicados pelo dominio se configurado.)

 

Selecione Primary Zone e clique next

5. Digite o nome da Zona, neste exemplo mcsesolution.local .

6. Na janela Zone File, aceite o padrão clicando em Next.

7. Na janela Dynamic Update, clique Next.
Inicialmente não iremos alterar a opção, porém é importante saber que em uma rede local, os computadores clientes podem automaticamente criar seus registros no servidor DNS. Como não estamos permitindo a atualização dinamica teremos que manualmente adicionar os computadores.
Quando o DNS esta sendo criado apenas para resolução de endereços na Internet esse opção deve ser "Do Not Allow Dynamic Updates" .

8. Clique em Finish

9. Agora iremos criar um zona de pesquisa reversa, ou seja o serviço irá fazer a resolução de IP para nomes.
10. Clique com o lado direito sobre Reverse Lookup Zone e selecione no menu suspenso "New Zone"
11. Na janela New Zone clique Next.
12. Na janela Zone Type escolha (primary zone) zona primaria e clique em Next.
13. Na janela Reverse Lookup Zone name selecione IPv4 Reverse Lookup Zone.

14. Na janela Reverse Lookup Zone name em Network ID digite 10.0.0 que é a subnet utilizada nos tutoriais.

15. Na janela Zone File, aceite o padrão clicando em Next.

16. Na janela Dynamic Update, clique Next.
17.Clique Finish.


 


Configurando o DNS (Name Servers)

É muito importante esse passo, para o funcionamento do Servidor DNS.
18. Clique sobre a zona criada "mcsesolution.local" e em seguida selecione properties no menu.
19.Na guia "Name Servers" clique sobre o nome do servidor e em seguida no botão Edit.

20. Na janela Edit Name Server Record, clique no botão resolve e em seguida escolha o endereço IP e clique em OK.

21. Clique OK novamente para fechar a janela mcsesolution.local properties e repita a operação para a zona reversa.

 


Criando um Registro tipo HOST(A)

Existem diversos registros, mas geralmente utilizamos somente alguns:

HOST (A) – Nome de host
Alias (CNAME) – Quando um servidor possuir mais de um nome. (apelido).
Name Server (NS) – Servidor DNS – Indica quem é o servidor de nomes para determinada zona.
Mail Exchanger (MX) – Controla para onde o e-mail será enviado no dominio.
Pointer (PTR) – Registro da zona reversa.(ip para nome)

1.Abra o MMC DNS.

2. Clique com o lado direito sobre Forward Lookup Zone e selecione no menu suspenso "New Host (A or AAAA) "

3. Não digite nenhum nome, deixe em branco e coloque o IP do servidor DNS e marque a opção "Create associated pointer (PTR) record, assim também será criado um RR na zona reversa.
4. Clique "Add Host".

 


Testando o Servidor DNS.

Existem diversas ferramentas para o teste do Servidor DNS, o prorpio servidor DNS possue sua propria ferramenta de teste, que não abordaremos neste tutorial.
Para testar o servidor DNS, basta abrir o console "cmd" e usar o comando PING.
Exemplo:
ping mcsesolution.local para testar o zona de pesquisa direta
ping -a 10.0.0.1 para testar a zona de pesquisa reversa.

   

Credits Daniel Donda

How to Setup and Configure DNS in Windows Server 2012

Setting up a Domain Name System (DNS) on Windows Server involves installing the DNS Server Role. This tutorial will walk you through the DNS installation and configuration process in Windows Server 2012.

Microsoft Windows Server 2012 is a powerful server operating system capable of many different roles and functions. However, to prevent overloading production servers with features and options that are never used, Windows Server provides a modular approach in which the administrator manually installs the services needed. To setup and configure DNS, one must install the DNS Server Role on Windows Server 2012. Check out: More Windows Administration Tutorials

Install DNS Server Role in Server 2012

To add a new role to Windows Server 2012, you use Server Manager. Start Server Manager, click the Manage menu, and then select Add Roles and Features.

Click Next on the Add Roles and Features Wizard Before you begin window that pops up. (If you checked Skip this page by default sometime in the past, that page will, of course, not appear.)

Now, it's time to select the installation type. For DNS servers, you will be selecting the Role-based or feature-based installation.

Next, you will choose which server you want to install the DNS server role on from the server pool. Select the server you want, and click next.

At this point, you will see a pop-up window informing you that some additional tools are required to manage the DNS Server. These tools do not necessarily have to be installed on the same server you are installing the DNS role on. If your organization only does remote administration, you do not have to install the DNS Server Tools.

However, in a crunch you may find yourself sitting at the server console or remotely using the console and needing to manage the DNS Server directly. In this case, you will wish you had the tools installed locally. Unless your company policy forbids it, it is typically prudent to install the management tools on the server where the DNS will be housed.

Now you should see the Features window. No need to make any changes here; just click Next.

Next is an informational window about DNS Server and what it does, although one would assume that if you've gotten this far, you are already aware of what it is. Click Next to move on.

This is the final confirmation screen before installation completes. You can check the box to Restart the destination server automatically, if you like. Installing the DNS Server does not require a restart, but unless you've planned for the downtime, keep that box unchecked, just in case.

The DNS Server role should now be installed on your server. There should be a new DNS Role tile in your Server Manager.

Configure DNS Server in Server 2012

If you are an old pro with DNS server files, Windows Server 2012 does let you edit the files directly. However, Microsoft recommends that you use the interface tools to avoid errors, especially if you are integrating DNS with Active Directory.

If you want to use the command line to configure your DNS, use the dnscmd command. For those of us who don't memorize TechNet for fun, a few clicks is all it takes.

Within Server Manager, to configure the DNS Server, click the Tools menu and select DNS. This brings up the DNS Manager window.

We need to configure how the DNS server will work before adding any actual records. Select the DNS server to manage, then click the Action menu, and select Configure a DNS Server. This brings up the Configure a DNS Server wizard.

There are three options here. You can either: configure a forward lookup zone only, create forward and reverse lookup zone, or configure root hints only.

A forward lookup zone allows you to do the standard DNS function of taking a name and resolving it into an IP address.

A reverse lookup zone allows you to do the opposite, taking an IP address and finding its name. For example, if a user is set up to print to a printer with an IP address of 10.20.12.114, but you need to know what name that printer goes by so you can find it, a reverse lookup can help. ("Ah, hah! It's you Third Floor Vending Room Printer #1. Why you give me so much trouble?)

Root hints only will not create a database of name records for lookups, but rather will just have the IP addresses of other DNS servers where records can be found. If you already have DNS setup on your network, you'll probably want to continue using the same configuration you already have. If not, use forward and backward for most situations. (Backup zones typically don't hurt anything, and they are nice to have when the need arises.)

After you've made your section, click Next.

Now, you choose whether this server will maintain the zone, or if this server will have a read-only copy of the DNS records from another server.

Next enter your zone name. If this is your first DNS server, then this needs to be the root zone name for your entire organization. For example, my zone name might be arcticllama.com. If however, this server will be authoritative only for a subset, and other DNS servers will be responsible for other zones, then the name will need to reflect that. For example, us.arcticllama.com would be the zone name for just the American part of my vast corporate empire 🙂 Click next when you have entered the name.

Now, you need to choose the file name where the DNS records will be stored. The default filename is to add a .dns extension to the name of the zone you chose in the previous window. Unless you have a corporate policy stating otherwise, stick with the convention to make things easier on yourself down the line.

Next you select how this server will respond to Dynamic Updates. Although there are three choices here, only two should actually be used in production. Select the first option to allow only secure dynamic updates if you are integrating your DNS with Active Directory. Select do not allow dynamic updates if your DNS is not integrated with Active Directory and you don't want to allow dynamic updates. Do not allow unsecured dynamic updates unless you really know what you are doing and have a very good reason for doing so.

Up next is the option to configure forwarders. If your DNS server ever gets a query for which it has no record, it can forward that request on to another DNS server to see if it has the answer.

For example, in order to provide name resolution for internet connectivity, you can input your ISP name servers here, or use a DNS provider such as OpenDNS. You can (and should) have more than one server listed in case a DNS server is unreachable for some reason. The order forwarders are listed in is the order they are tried, so place your faster and most reliable forwarder at the top of the list.

Click Next and your DNS server is now configured and ready for use.

 

Credits

How to establish VPN tunnel from iPhone to Vigor Router?

How to establish PPTP tunnel from iPhone to Vigor Router?

http://just.draytek.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=1983&Itemid=293&lang=en

 

How to establish L2TP tunnel from iPhone to Vigor Router?

http://just.draytek.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=5814&Itemid=293&lang=en

 

Tips:

I was having this issue and finally got it to work with the help of DrayTek Au support (thanks Erick!). I've got a Draytek 2710vn.

Not entirely sure what did it – installing a new beta firmware didn't help initially at least (3.3.6.1_RC2a)

My current settings are (for others with the same issue, some of these are probably unnecessary):

Remote Access Control – all enabled
PPP general setup – default
IPSEC general setup – enter a secret, only 3des enabled all others disabled
no IPSEC peers setup
remote dial in user:
enabled, 0 idle timeout
PPTP (as backup) & L2TP, IPSEC policy set to MUST
username/password
i've also set the IKE auth and IPSEC sec settings in the dial in user – the way to enable fiddling with those is to temporarily enable "Specify Remote Node" then edit the IKE pre-shared key to my secret and the IPSec security to 3des only, clicking OK to save those settings then going back in and disabling "Specify Remote Node" and licking OK again. That might all be black magic…

On the iphone 4.2.1:
server duh
username
password
secret
send all traffic yes
RSA secure ID no

Hope this helps – good luck to any others in this situation. Will also post in DSL section.

Credits scott

 

Rename a Windows 7 User Account and Related Profile Folder

1. You are using Windows 7 Professional

For purposes of this article, we will assume the version is Windows 7 Professional. The only noticeable difference in the Home edition is that the Pro version of the “User Manager” is not directly available in the Home edition so, in Home edition, you will need to go to Control Panel, click on “Users” and rename the user from there.

 

2. The user to be renamed (and related folder) is named “owner.”

 

3. The desired new (target) user/folder name for this example is “tjones”

 

4. The temporary admin account  to be used will be called “temp.”
 

Steps

1. First, reboot into safe mode.

Click Start, point to the “right-arrow” symbol next to “Shutdown,” then choose “Restart”. During restart, press the “F8” key intermittently, until you see the startup menu selection for booting into various modes. Choose the the option to “Start in Safe Mode.”

2. Log into "safe mode" as a privileged user

Log into safe mode in the same manner as when you log into "normal mode,” as a privileged user. For this example, we can assume that you log in as "owner."

3. Create a new temporary user with administrator privileges. 

This account is used to perform the necessary maintenance against the computer account. This account is a temporary account and can be named along those lines. For this example, we create an account name “temp” and we use a password of "Temp@pass1."

  a. Add the "temp" user; from the command prompt, type "net user /add temp Temp@pass1" and press "Enter."
  b. Add the “temp” user to the “administrators” group; type: "net localgroup administrators temp /add" and press Enter

4. Log out of the current user account.

5. Log into "safe mode" as the new temporary admin user ("temp").

6. Rename the existing user account ("owner") to the new name.

   a. From the command prompt, type: "netplwiz" and press "Enter." This will take you to the User Accounts control applet.


   b. Choose the ‘Advanced’ tab, and then click “Advanced” under the “Advanced User Management” section:

   c. Give the existing account the desired new name.

Highlight “Users” in the left pane, then highlight the account to be changed (“owner,” in this case), then right-click and choose “Rename.” Give the account the desired new name, “tjones” in this example.

If desired, right-click the new “tjones” account, choose “Properties” and change the “Full Name” section to your desired name, to match your needs.

 

7. Rename the existing (original) user folder to the desired new folder name.

   a. Login as the new administrator account that you created earlier ("temp," in this case).
   
b. Browse to the “c:\users” folder.
   
c. Rename the folder to the new name

       Right-click the folder to be renamed (“owner” in this case), choose rename and enter the new name (“tjones” in this example).



 

8. Change the "ProfileImagePath" registry key to match the newly-renamed user.

From command prompt, type “regedit” and press Enter. Next, navigate to the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\ProfileList
Find the Profile SID associated with the user you wish to change (“owner,” in this case) by doing a "Find" within the registry editor; or simply browse through the keys within the "ProfileList" key, until you find the one with "ProfileImagePath" of "c:\Users\owner" (in this case). Once found, double-click that ProfileImagePath key and change it to "c:\Users\tjones” (in this case), and click "Ok".


 

9. Remove the temporary administrator user account ("temp," in this case).

   a. Reboot into "normal mode (let the computer reboot, without choosing any options)
   b. Login with your newly-renamed user ("tjones.")
   c. Go to the command prompt, and then type: "net user temp /delete" and press "Enter."
       The above step (deleting the "temp" admin user) is the final step.

 

Credits

Adding additional Domain Controller (Windows Server 2012)

Why do we need to add additional Domain Controller? This answer is very simple: “for services redundancy” or “for domain authentication improvement in remote Site”.

In case of server failure, we still have another one which can provide necessary services in our network, which avoids business discontinuity.

First of all, we need to install new box or virtual machine with a server operating system that is supported in domain environment. To check what Windows Server versions can be installed and promoted as Domain Controller, we need to check Domain Functional Level.

To determine Domain Functional Level, please follow my another article on the blog titled: Determine DFL and FFL using PowerShell

You may find one of these Domain Functional Levels supported by Windows Server 2012 Domain Controllers:

  • Windows Server 2003 – supports Windows Server 2003 and above
  • Windows Server 2008 – supports Windows Server 2008 and above
  • Windows Server 2008 R2 – supports Windows Server 2008 R2 and above
  • Windows Server 2012 – only Windows Server 2012 is supported

When you already know you Domain Functional Level, you can start adding additional Domain Controller

First of all, you need to install new machine based on Windows Server 2012. When server is already installed, you have to configure its network card properties to be able to start promotion process. As it is Domain Controller, server requires static IP address from the same subnet or subnet which is routable within a network. As directory services rely on DNS server, you need to properly point where the service is running. In this example additional server is using 192.168.1.1 DNS IP address (a forest root domain DC).

IPv4 settings

After IP address verification and server name change, you can simply start Active Directory: Directory Servicesrole installation. As you already know, Windows Server 2012 does not support server promotion over dcpromo, you need  to do that in post-installation steps.

Open Server Manager and click on “Add roles and features” under Dashboard screen

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

Using default settings in a wizard go up to “Server roles” step (in this article those steps are not described. You may expect their description in another article) and select Active Directory Directory Services role. Accept also default features which are required during installation. Verify if check box is in proper place and go to the next step

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

On “Features” screen also go to the next step as we do not need more at this step to be installed. All required features will be installed as you accepted them a little bit earlier

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

Read information about role you are installing and go to confirmation screen to install it

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

Wait some time until selected role is being installed before you will be able to promote server to Domain Controller

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

Active Directory: Directory Services role installation

Now, when role is installed, you can see in notification area an exclamation mark. It tells you that post-installation steps might be required

Notification area

Click on it to see what can be done. You will see that now, you can promote your server to Domain Controller and information that features were installed successfully

Notification area

OK, let’s start server promotion to Domain Controller! Click on “Promote this server to a domain controller” and you will see a wizard.

As we are adding Domain Controller into existing domain, we need to select proper option. It is selected by default, however, please ensure if you can see that “Add a domain controller to an existing domain” is selected

Domain Controller promotion

When you verified that, place in field with red star DNS domain name to which you are promoting DC. Provide Enterprise Administrator credentials and go to the next step

Domain Controller promotion

Domain Controller promotion

Domain Controller promotion

Define if server should be DNS server and Global Catalog. I would strongly recommend installing both roles on each Domain Controller in your environment. Select a Site to which this DC should belongs to and define Directory Services Restoration Mode (DSRM) password for this DC

Domain Controller promotion

Do not worry about DNS delegation as this server is not DNS already. Go to the next step

In”Additional options” you can define if you want to install this Domain Controller from Install From Media (IFM) (if you have it) and point from which DC replication should be done. When you do not specify, server will choose the best location for AD database replication. If you have no special requirements for that, just leave “Any domain controller”

Domain Controller promotion

Specify location for AD database and SYSVOL (if you need different that suggested) and go to the next step

Domain Controller promotion

You will see a summary screen where you can check all selected options for server promotion. As in Windows Server 2012 everything done over Server Manager is translated into PowerShell code and it is executed in a background, you can check code by clicking on “View script” button. You will see what exactly will be run. This is transparent process and you cannot see PowerShell window in front of you

Domain Controller promotion

PowerShell code for adding Domain Controller

 #
 # Windows PowerShell script for AD DS Deployment
 #
 Import-Module ADDSDeployment
 Install-ADDSDomainController `
 -NoGlobalCatalog:$false `
 -CreateDnsDelegation:$false `
 -Credential (Get-Credential) `
 -CriticalReplicationOnly:$false `
 -DatabasePath "C:WindowsNTDS" `
 -DomainName "testenv.local" `
 -InstallDns:$true `
 -LogPath "C:WindowsNTDS" `
 -NoRebootOnCompletion:$false `
 -SiteName "Default-First-Site-Name" `
 -SysvolPath "C:WindowsNTDS" `
 -Force:$true

If all prerequisites will pass and you are sure that all setting you have set up properly, you can start installation

Domain Controller promotion

After you clicked on “Install” button, wait until wizard will do its job and after server restart you will have additional Windows Server 2012 Domain Controller.

Additional Domain Controller logon screen

Give DC some time to replicate Directory Services data and you can enjoy with new DC.

 

Credits

Como reparar sectores defeituosos HDD

Não é remover o setor defeituoso e sim, marca-lo para que não sejam mais gravados dados naquele local.

O programa a utilizar  será o HDAT2 4.53 presente no Hiren’s Boot CD

O HDAT2 é um programa com várias ferramentas, mas hoje trabalharemos somente com a que repara os setores defeituosos, que é o tema central desse nosso tutorial.

O que é necessário

1- Versão do Hiren’s Boot CD no site oficial clicando neste link  ou baixe a versão usada nesse tutorial clicando aqui

2- Gravar a imagem ISO em um CD ou PEN Drive.
 

Aceder a aplicação

1- Boot pelo CD.

2- Seleccionar a opção DOS Programs e pressione Enter
 

3- Aceder Hard Disk Tools… > HDAT2 4.53 (Test/Repair Bad Sectors) .

4- O programa começará a ser carregado. Serão apresentadas algumas mensagens na tela. Vá pressionar Enter até ser apresentada a tela abaixo.
 

5- O próximo passo será selecionar o HDD que será analisado, seleccionar na lista que aparecer e tecle Enter.

6- Selecionar a primeira opção Drive Level Tests Menu que é a opção para checar e reparar os setores defeituosos no HD e pressione Enter.

7- Deixar selecionada a opção Check and Repair bad sectors e pressionar Enter.

8- Daqui em diante o programa fará um scan no HD conforme imagem abaixo. Sempre que for encontrado algum problema o computador emitirá um alerta sonoro e aparecerá um B em vermelho indicando que aquele setor está com defeito. O próprio HDAT2 4.53 fará a correção e a marcação do setor defeituoso. Se for encontrado algum problema no seu HDD sugiro a troca imediata desse componente.
 

 

Credits

How to Backup Virtual Guest on Hyperv Cluster 2012 with Windows Server Backup

Windows Server Backup in Windows Server 2012 has feature been changed or added, which include limited support for CSV backup :

  1. Virtual machines hosted on CSV’s cannot be added as part of backup configuration
  2. Windows Server Backup has to be configured on all nodes to ensure that backup and recovery will be available in the event of a failure on one of the nodes in the cluster.
  3. Volumes recovery not supported
  4. Security access control lists are not applicable on CSV file service root. Therefore, file recovery to the root of CSV volume is not supported.

Backup virtual guests on Hyper-V Cluster  2012 can be done with command line tool wbadmin. On all hyperv host in your cluster you have to install Windows Backup tool. This can be done with Windows Powershell or GUI.  If you use Powershell console,  you must run it as Administrator.

From Powershell console run

Import-module servermanager

Add-WndowsFeatures Windowws-Server-Backup

To backup virtual guest server1 on file share \\localhost\vmbackup

wbadmin start backup -include:D:\ClusterStorage1\volume4\server1 -backuptarget:\\localhost\vmbackup\server1

D:\ClusterStorage1\volume4\server1  is location where you have vm guest files

If you want to recover your Hyper-V virtual guest server1 from backup to altenate location you simpy use file recovery.

You must find backup version at first

wbadmin get versions -backuptarget:\\localhost\vmbackup\server1

Restor your virtual guest sever1

wbadmin start recovery -version:05/22/2013-07:35 -backuptarget:\\localhost\vmbackup\server1 -itemtype:file -items:D:\ClusterStorage1\volume4\server1  -recursive -recoverytarget:x\recover -machine:hyperv1

 

Credits

Hyper-V Backup doesn’t interrupt running virtual machines (anymore)

Hyper-V has always provided the ability to backup all your virtual machines from the host operating system.  In order to provide a consistent backup of the virtual machine – Hyper-V has traditionally employed two approaches:

  1. If the guest operating system has the Hyper-V backup integration service installed and running: use VSS (for Windows) or file system freeze (for Linux) to create a data consistent backup of the running virtual machine.
  2. If the guest operating system does not have the Hyper-V backup integration service installed or running: put the virtual machine into a saved state, and perform a backup of the saved virtual machine.

This second approach has always been problematic – as it takes a running virtual machine offline for the backup process.  The good news is that this second approach has been drastically improved in Windows Server 2012 R2.  Now, rather putting the virtual machine into a saved state – we take a checkpoint of the virtual machine.  This checkpoint is backed up, and deleted after the operation is complete.

The net result of this is that no matter what the guest operating system, and no matter what the state of the integration services inside the guest operating system, Hyper-V will never interrupt a running virtual machine as part of backing it up (anymore).

 

Credits

Opensuse additional package repositories

This is a list of currently existing third-party repositories, meaning they're external to openSUSE. These packages are not supported by openSUSE, the packages may not be tested and the repositories can contain beta versions and other bleeding edge packages.

  • For official repositories (OSS, non-OSS, Update, Update-Non-OSS) and semi official repositories (including KDE, GNOME and Java repositories) see Package repositories.
  • For information on how to add package repositories see Add package repositories.
  • For new Linux and openSUSE users it is recommended to use the 4 default repositories (OSS, Non-OSS, Update, Update-Non-OSS) and Packman. Later on when you familiarize yourself with package management you can add more.
  • Please, make sure that you actually need a specific repository instead of blindly adding it. More repositories means more complexity in software management and needs some experience to avoid problems and, in extreme cases, system failure.

https://en.opensuse.org/Additional_package_repositories#VLC_VideoLan_client